Though general in scope, it provides an accessible and reasonably detailed account of these campaigns suitable for younger readers.
Doherty, Katherin M. Enslow Publishers, Filling a gap between elementary works on Richard I and more academic publications, this text aimed at a middle and high school audience conveys both the power and the brutality of Richard I, as well as his numerous accomplishments despite his short time as King of England. Generalizing in some areas, the text would easily be a useful source for middle- to early high school students.
More advanced high school students should certainly search through more detailed texts. This novel centers on the lives of two young boys, one a Christian and the other a Muslim, alive during the time of the Third Crusade. Adam, an English serf, has decided to journey with the crusader armies to Jerusalem in an attempt to help his unconfessed and dead mother find her way to heaven. The two boys eventually encounter each other and, throughout the course of the novel, discover that they have much more in common than they might have ever expected.
Like the Pagan Chronicles see below , this is a highly fictionalized account of the Third Crusade, the events of which are more of a backdrop for stories of the two protagonists. Stanley, Diane. Saladin: Noble Prince of Islam. Illustrated by Diane Stanley. New York: Harper-Collins, This text reveals as much about the fantasy of Saladin in Western culture as it does about the historical figure. This story, unlike many other fictional works on the crusades, focuses on the plight of the Jewish people in the Rhine Valley as the crusaders repeatedly pillaged their communities on the First Crusade.
Elvena, the protagonist, is the year-old granddaughter of the rabbi Rashi. Both characters, as the reader discovers in the epilogue, are based on eponymous historical figures. Madden, Thomas, ed. Crusades: The Illustrated History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, This marvelously illustrated book is an excellent introduction to scholarly works as each chapter is written by a different historian. Though useful for college instructors and students as well, the format and quantity of detailed information in this history book is perhaps the most accessible and most easily digestible for early high school readers.
While it does not seek to be completely comprehensive, it does provide a solid foundation. Jinks, Catherine. Cambridge, MA:Candlewick, Cambridge, MA: Candlewick, This lively and well-received series centers on the adventures of a young boy, Pagan, who is a squire to a Templar Knight. The second installment involves his life in Languedoc with his lord Roland. The fourth book involves the war against the Cathars also known as the Albigensian Crusade. This series would make for an excellent book report project; however, prior reading on the historical period involved is required.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford University Press, An array of historical work on the crusades has been produced in the past fifty years, no doubt inspired by contemporary issues and concerns by Western Europe and America about the Middle East. There are many excellent books dealing with either the crusades in general or specific campaigns; however, the few that are selected here are excellent texts for instructors who wish to prepare units on the crusades.
They will also be of use to advanced high-school students in need of texts for research projects or who are simply interested in learning more about these religious wars. His beautifully written text is vital to understanding many of the popular assumptions about the crusades, but frequently emotive prose evident most prominently in his conclusion rather antiquates his work. Jonathan, ed.
- The Ritual (Theft and Sorcery Book 1).
- The BuddhaPest (Third Culture Kid Chronicles Book 1)?
- “Speech of Urban II at the Council of Claremont, November 26, 1095”.
Hallam, Elizabeth, ed. New York: Welcome Rain, It is an excellent resource for advanced high-school student papers, or for instructors seeking out primary source material. The second section of the book is a narrative outline of the crusades, broken down into accessible units.
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Third is a section comprised of succinct biographies about individuals relevant to crusades history. Fourth and Fifth are sections devoted to historiography. Madden, Thomas. The New Concise History of the Crusades. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Save money on books reviewed or featured in the Church Times.
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Monday 07 October A reformation by Martin Luther alone? Lindsay Kaplan. Burden: A preacher, a klansman and a true story of redemption in the modern South, by Courtney Hargrave. The exhibit ran from January to August of The varied nature of this word can be seen via a simple Internet search, where one can find websites promoting social outreach "Crusade Against Breast Cancer" , describing Christian organizations Campus Crusade for Christ , advertising computer games and film World of Warcraft expansion: The Burning Crusade , or promoting commercial enterprises Crusade Laboratories.
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In these contexts, the word "crusade" is an acceptable term indicating a general struggle for good. When used to refer to the historical events themselves, the modern reaction to the word and its context can be quite different.
Take, for instance, an event described by Thomas F. In this instance, students, alumni, and the public saw the crusader-mascot as a representation of a repugnant historical figure, and it was impossible to accept the existence of a mascot who recalled such a violent period of "religious intolerance.
Bush's ill-timed use of the word. He faced criticism from the press and the general public by referring to the proposed war on terrorism as a "crusade" when speaking to the press corps shortly after his visit to the site of the World Trade Center in Apologists for the president's remarks have argued that the word had "long lost its original meaning of 'a war for the cross' and. At present, 'crusade' almost always means simply a vigorous campaign for a good cause.
For instance, Dr. Members must swear to uphold its statement of purpose which states that Islam is the greatest current threat against humanity, and that "Faith Defenders" have an obligation to convert all practitioners of the Muslim faith. Madden has pointed out that this "modern criticism of the crusades derives principally from a wide-spread belief that the medieval crusades were evil precisely because they were wars of religion.
This modern perception is also significant to a study of the crusades, for it is through the reinvention and seemingly "false" interpretations of these historical events that some of the most enduring ideological legacies of the crusades have survived and developed. The intent of this project, is to illustrate the medieval origins and cultural implications of the crusades, and the continued references to these religious wars in western imagination.
One of the first obstacles in summing up the history of the crusades is the wide-ranging and almost indefinable nature of these numerous medieval campaigns.
Library Resources: The Crusades—An Annotated Bibliography for Teachers
Emphasis, in pop culture as well as in academia, is often placed on the crusades fought in the Levant. Nevertheless, the term "crusade," as historians refer to it, encompasses a wide geographic and ethnic range and a host of motivations. Origins : The spread of Islam from the 7th century onward caused Western Christendom to reevaluate its doctrinal attitudes towards religious warfare. Augustine of Hippo had outlined the conditions of a just war, but decried the use of war as a means to the conversion or slaughter of pagans and heretics.
The conquest of Christian lands, however, represented a threat not just to local kingdoms but to Christianity itself, and the Reconquista the reconquering of Spain by the Christians, c. Though other popes had begun to generate interest among European -- predominately Frankish -- nobility in aiding Byzantium and fending off the Turkish threat, it was Pope Urban II who actually initiated the First Crusade.
On November 27, , at the Council of Clermont, Urban II delivered a speech that would be repeated throughout Europe, and whose probably embellished sentiments would be voiced to the general populace by local clergy. While an exact transcription of the speech has not survived, several versions ranging in accuracy and reliability do exist which indicate that Urban called for a war that would alleviate the suffering and persecution of eastern Christians and free the Holy Land of Muslim occupation.
Urban's speech inspired the widespread preaching of bishops and priests, whose frequent references to the continued persecution of Christ, correlative biblical passages, and feudal obligation to God spurred thousands of men and women to "take up the cross" and join the armies headed to the Levant. But while Jerusalem retained a certain ideological primacy in medieval culture and continued to be a source of inspiration for various martial campaigns in the high Middle Ages, the indulgence and the desire to defend the lands of Christ were concepts readily applied to regions other than Palestine soon after the campaigns that began in The First Crusade should not then be viewed as a strict template upon which other crusading endeavors were successfully or unsuccessfully modeled.
Pope Eugenius in officially identified the Reconquista as a crusade perhaps as a means of ensuring that Christian warriors remained in Spain to war with the Moors. Several crusades throughout Europe were organized to eliminate various heretical or pagan sects and subcultures the Albigensians or Cathars, the Germanic Wends, etc. The ideology of the crusade was widely applied to diffuse military campaigns throughout Europe; as such, there was less and less incentive to make a redemptive journey to Jerusalem when the same religious goal could be attained much closer to one's own territory.
Ultimately, this evolution of crusading ideology contributed dramatically to the decline of the Latin Kingdom because progressively fewer people were journeying to defend it. Interpreting the Historical Crusades : Were the crusades particularly the Levantine campaigns a collective failure? Steven Runciman, the famous Byzantianist and Crusades historian of the mid-twentieth century, would argue that they most certainly were.
In "The Summing-Up" of his three-volume history on the Crusades, he argues that:. He argues that the crusades had little lasting effect on Western Europe, that the "chief benefit obtained by Western Christendom [and the Islamic world] from the [c]rusades was negative," and that the harm done to Eastern Christendom was cataclysmic. Runciman's interpretation of these campaigns has had an enduringly powerful influence on contemporary popular perceptions of the crusades.
Story Crusades by Wilmot Buxton E M
Both Madden and Christopher Tyerman have commented upon his importance in this context, with Tyerman specifically reflecting on the fact that many people, from the late Middle Ages to the present, would have agreed with Runciman's interpretation of the Crusades. Tyerman, however, quickly accounts for the fact that many others, from "educated circles around Urban II at the end of the eleventh century" to several contemporary scholars themselves included would have taken issue with Runciman's perspective.
While modern audiences are quick to judge and condemn the crusaders, Madden drawing, in part, on the work of Jonathan Riley-Smith reminds the reader that the crusades were often viewed by contemporaries as acts of "piety, charity, and love" and argues for a proper contextualization of these campaigns:. This desire for contextualization has a long tradition among crusades historians and is a frequently encouraged practice. Tyerman, however, in quoting the German historian H. Mayer, cautions that, while this approach is valuable, neither scholar nor more casual "observer" can avoid seeing "the crusades filtered through the material of his own mind.
This timeline highlights several key moments in the struggle for Christian control of the Levant, with some acknowledgment of crusading movements outside of the Middle East. Emphasis has been placed upon the Levantine crusades, since they have been evoked most consistently throughout the centuries in Western European and American art, literature, and propaganda.
For a comprehensive timeline, see The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Ideology and Preaching of the Crusade. By , Urban II's call for a crusade was only part of a larger shifting in theological interpretations and justifications of warfare: the Reconquista in Spain, for instance, had been under way for over two centuries and was rooted in a re-fashioned understanding of just war theory.
The explicit blending of pilgrimage and warfare gave the First Crusade a unique potency that triggered widespread enthusiasm across feudal social boundaries. Pilgrimage was a common practice during the Middle Ages and, given the perils of travel, pilgrims often armed themselves for defense.